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Brand new Book. The Theory section takes a close, unbiased look at why so much time and effort has been expended on revising IPv4. In the Protocol section is a comprehensive review of the specifics of IPv6 and related protocols. Finally, the Practice section provides hands-on explanations of how to roll out IPv6 support and services. This completely rewritten edition offers updated and comprehensive coverage of important topics including router and server configuration, security, the impact of IPv6 on mobile networks, and evaluating the impact of IPv6-enabled networks globally.
Pete Loshin's famously lucid explanations benefit readers at every turn, making Ipv6: Theory, Protocol, and Practice the best way for a large diverse audience to get up to speed on this groundbreaking technology. Seller Inventory EOD More information about this seller Contact this seller 9. Published by Morgan Kaufmann Publishers Inc. More information about this seller Contact this seller Seller Inventory AAV Seller Inventory M A subset of telephony QoS is grade of service GoS requirements, which comprises aspects of a connection relating to capacity and coverage of a network, for example guaranteed maximum blocking probability and outage probability.
In the field of computer networking and other packet-switched telecommunication networks, teletraffic engineering refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality. For example, a required bit rate, delay , delay variation , packet loss or bit error rates may be guaranteed.
Quality of service is important for real-time streaming multimedia applications such as voice over IP , multiplayer online games and IPTV , since these often require fixed bit rate and are delay sensitive. Quality of service is especially important in networks where the capacity is a limited resource, for example in cellular data communication.
A network or protocol that supports QoS may agree on a traffic contract with the application software and reserve capacity in the network nodes, for example during a session establishment phase. During the session it may monitor the achieved level of performance, for example the data rate and delay, and dynamically control scheduling priorities in the network nodes. It may release the reserved capacity during a tear down phase. A best-effort network or service does not support quality of service. An alternative to complex QoS control mechanisms is to provide high quality communication over a best-effort network by over-provisioning the capacity so that it is sufficient for the expected peak traffic load.
The resulting absence of network congestion reduces or eliminates the need for QoS mechanisms. QoS is sometimes used as a quality measure, with many alternative definitions, rather than referring to the ability to reserve resources. Quality of service sometimes refers to the level of quality of service, i.
QoS is sometimes used in application layer services such as telephony and streaming video to describe a metric that reflects or predicts the subjectively experienced quality. In this context, QoS is the acceptable cumulative effect on subscriber satisfaction of all imperfections affecting the service. See also Subjective video quality. A number of attempts for layer 2 technologies that add QoS tags to the data have gained popularity in the past. Despite these network technologies remaining in use today, this kind of network lost attention after the advent of Ethernet networks.
Today Ethernet is, by far, the most popular layer 2 technology. Conventional Internet routers and LAN switches operate on a best effort basis. This equipment is less expensive, less complex and faster and thus more popular than earlier more complex technologies that provide QoS mechanisms. Ethernet optionally uses There were four type of service bits and three precedence bits originally provided in each IP packet header , but they were not generally respected.
In packet-switched networks , quality of service is affected by various factors, which can be divided into human and technical factors. Human factors include: stability of service quality, availability of service, waiting times and user information. Technical factors include: reliability, scalability, effectiveness, maintainability and network congestion.
Many things can happen to packets as they travel from origin to destination, resulting in the following problems as seen from the point of view of the sender and receiver:. A defined quality of service may be desired or required for certain types of network traffic, for example:. These types of service are called inelastic , meaning that they require a certain minimum bit rate and a certain maximum latency to function.
By contrast, elastic applications can take advantage of however much or little bandwidth is available.
Bulk file transfer applications that rely on TCP are generally elastic. Circuit switched networks, especially those intended for voice transmission, such as Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM or GSM , have QoS in the core protocol, resources are reserved at each step on the network for the call as it is set up, there is no need for additional procedures to achieve required performance.
Shorter data units and built-in QoS were some of the unique selling points of ATM for applications such as video on demand. When the expense of mechanisms to provide QoS is justified, network customers and providers can enter into a contractual agreement termed a service level agreement SLA which specifies guarantees for the ability of a connection to give guaranteed performance in terms of throughput or latency based on mutually agreed measures. An alternative to complex QoS control mechanisms is to provide high quality communication by generously over-provisioning a network so that capacity is based on peak traffic load estimates.
This approach is simple for networks with predictable peak loads.
This calculation may need to appreciate demanding applications that can compensate for variations in bandwidth and delay with large receive buffers, which is often possible for example in video streaming. Over-provisioning can be of limited use in the face of transport protocols such as TCP that over time increase the amount of data placed on the network until all available bandwidth is consumed and packets are dropped. Such greedy protocols tend to increase latency and packet loss for all users.
The amount of over-provisioning in interior links required to replace QoS depends on the number of users and their traffic demands. This limits usability of over-provisioning. Newer more bandwidth intensive applications and the addition of more users results in the loss of over-provisioned networks.
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This then requires a physical update of the relevant network links which is an expensive process. Thus over-provisioning cannot be blindly assumed on the Internet. Under high load conditions, however, VoIP may degrade to cell-phone quality or worse. Unlike single-owner networks, the Internet is a series of exchange points interconnecting private networks. Its behavior is much more unpredictable. There are two principal approaches to QoS in modern packet-switched IP networks, a parameterized system based on an exchange of application requirements with the network, and a prioritized system where each packet identifies a desired service level to the network.
Early work used the integrated services IntServ philosophy of reserving network resources. In this model, applications used the Resource reservation protocol RSVP to request and reserve resources through a network.
While IntServ mechanisms do work, it was realized that in a broadband network typical of a larger service provider, Core routers would be required to accept, maintain, and tear down thousands or possibly tens of thousands of reservations. It was believed that this approach would not scale with the growth of the Internet, and in any event was antithetical to the notion of designing networks so that Core routers do little more than simply switch packets at the highest possible rates.
In response to these markings, routers and switches use various queuing strategies to tailor performance to requirements. Routers supporting DiffServ configure their network scheduler to use multiple queues for packets awaiting transmission from bandwidth constrained e. Router vendors provide different capabilities for configuring this behavior, to include the number of queues supported, the relative priorities of queues, and bandwidth reserved for each queue.
In practice, when a packet must be forwarded from an interface with queuing, packets requiring low jitter e. Typically, some bandwidth is allocated by default to network control packets such as Internet Control Message Protocol and routing protocols , while best effort traffic might simply be given whatever bandwidth is left over. One compelling example of the need for QoS on the Internet relates to congestive collapse.
The Internet relies on congestion avoidance protocols, as built into Transmission Control Protocol TCP , to reduce traffic under conditions that would otherwise lead to "meltdown". QoS contracts limit traffic that can be offered to the Internet and thereby enforce traffic shaping that can prevent it from becoming overloaded, and are hence an indispensable part of the Internet's ability to handle a mix of real-time and non-real-time traffic without meltdown.
End-to-end quality of service can require a method of coordinating resource allocation between one autonomous system and another.