Guide Planctomycetes: Cell Structure, Origins and Biology

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Planctomycetes, and their relatives within the PVC superphylum of domain Bacteria, including verrucomicrobia and chlamydia, challenge our classical concept.
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Table of contents 12 chapters Table of contents 12 chapters History, Classification and Cultivation of the Planctomycetes Pages Jenkins, Cheryl et al. Show next xx. Recommended for you. PAGE 1. Bar, nm. Figure S2. Partial tomographic reconstruction of a G. Transmission electron micrographs of thick-sectioned cryosubstituted high-pressure frozen cells consistent with the proposal that riboplasm vesicles may rearrange fuse or separate from each other. Arrowheads indicate membrane invaginations inside a riboplasm vesicle R either representing a process leading to breakage of the vesicle onto two separate units or a joining of two pre-existing vesicles.

The partial cell reconstruction can be viewed in Movie S2. Figure S3. Internal compartments in G. Whole cells were thin-sectioned after cryosubstitution processing and resin embedding, then examined under TEM. The interior of a cell is compartmentalized by membranes into nuclear body NB containing the nucleoid DNA N , areas of riboplasm R containing ribosomes only and no fibrillar nucleoid DNA, and ribosome-free paryphoplasm P.

Planctomycetes

The inset enlargement of the boxed area shows cell wall black arrowheads , which appears as an outermost thin layer. Cytoplasmic membrane is indicated by white arrows, and intracytoplasmic membrane by white arrowheads. Bar, 50 nm. Figure S4. Cell walls of G. A A clump of bacterial walls viewed via TEM after negative staining with uranyl acetate, which are relatively electron-transparent and retain the round shape of intact untreated cells.

The transparency indicates that the interior is lacking the intracellular material. B Magnified image of negatively stained cell wall shows characteristic crateriform structures on the surface arrowheads. C The isolated cell walls as viewed after cryosubstitution and thin-sectioning. D Inset from C showing a thin cell wall layer arrow with crateriform structures arrowheads. E TEM image of a G.

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A single cell wall layer is indicated by black arrows, and a crateriform structure by a white arrow. Figure S5.


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Membrane rearrangements in a budding G. TEM images of a non-budding cell A , where paryphoplasm P , riboplasm R , and nuclear body NB containing nucleoid N , are clearly seen, and a budding cell B , where some of the internal membranes are not interconnected black arrowheads.


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  4. A bud in process of formation white arrowhead and two nucleoids N are indicated. Figure S6. Multiple nucleoids in G. The interior of the cells is separated by membranes arrowheads which surround nucleoids N.


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    A A cell which contains four nucleoids, two of which N1 and N2 are fully enclosed by membranes and separated from the other two nucleoids N3 and N4. B A budding cell which contains four nucleoids, two of them N1 and N2 fully enclosed by membranes and separated from the other two nucleoids N3 and N4. The bud is indicated by a white arrowhead. C A cell which is interpreted as having just finished budding, containing three nucleoids, two of them N1 and N2 clearly fully surrounded by membranes.

    The former bud is indicated by white arrow. Figure S7. Membrane rearrangements in a G. TEM images of thin section of a whole cryosubstituted G. Paryphoplasm P is seen as dark areas, while riboplasm R appears as more transparent areas. Arrowheads indicate the places where membranes are expected.

    FtsK localization within Gemmata obscuriglobus cells: preparation of antibody and immunogold staining.

    Introduction

    Detailed description of the preparation of the cell appearing in the movie can be found in the legend for Figure 1 , which was generated from Movie S1. Detailed description of preparation of the cell appearing in the movie can be found in the legend for Figure S2 in File S1, which was generated from Movie S3.

    Detailed description of the preparation of the cell appearing in the movie can be found in the legend for Figure S2 in File S1, which was generated from Movie S3. Research in the laboratory of J. F was supported by the Australian Research Council. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Abstract Members of phylum Planctomycetes have been proposed to possess atypical cell organisation for the Bacteria, having a structure of sectioned cells consistent with internal compartments surrounded by membranes.

    Introduction Past structural studies [1] , [2] , [3] have revealed unique cell organisation of the planctomycete bacteria, including the separation of their cytoplasm into compartments via internal membranes [4] , [5]. Materials and Methods Cell culture growth and preparation of Gemmata obscuriglobus for microscopy G.

    Electron tomography from thick sections nm thick sections were cut using a Leica EM UC6 ultramicrotome. FtsK labelling experiments The results of preparative work for labelling of sections of G. Results Electron tomography reconstructions and 3D models of G. Download: PPT. Figure 1. Visualisation and isolation of Gemmata obscuriglobus cell wall One of the major reasons for recent proposal [7] , [9] for the Gram-negative nature of planctomycete cell organisation was inability to recognise the walls of G.

    Localisation of FtsK protein in G. Figure 2.

    Planctomycetes: Cell Structure, Origins and Biology

    Distribution of the FtsK protein in G. Discussion Compartmentalisation of planctomycete bacteria In the current work we confirm the enclosed nature of nuclear body and riboplasm compartments in the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus , using tomography analyses. New mode of planctomycete cell division Our current results also allowed us to clarify some important aspects of G.

    Figure 4. A model for mechanism of cell division of G. Implications for cell biology and evolution The results here are consistent with other arguments for the exceptional nature of planctomycetes and related bacteria and their importance for understanding evolution [46]. Supporting Information. File S1. Text S1.